LAND REHABILITATION, OVERCOMING ECONOMIC AND ENERGY CRISIS
We realize the important of tree and forest to overcome the danger of global warming impacts, and to anticipate we have to force the continuity of forest and planting as much tree as posible and replanting the mangrove along the beach which are a real action of the environment activity agenda.
As written in Canopo.org (2006), every planted tree is a big contribution for men’s life and environment. One big tree produces a supply of oxigen (O2) for 4 persons per day. the number of planted trees in an area of 4,000 m2 is capable to absorb carbondioxide (CO2) produced by vehicles running 26,000 miles, capable of moving sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NO) which are two major components of acid rain and ozon pollution. Besides that the trees are capable to lower the amount of dust and cigarette smoke up to 75% under the trees’ canopy, lower heat and temperatur in the city as much as 9°C where the evaporation of one tree can result a cooling effect as much as ten cooler operates for 20 hours a day!
The research shows that plants growing in cities affecting the ability to slow down the heart pace, lower the high blood pressure, create a relaxing mind, reduce 40% of noise pollution - which can trigger hypertension, increase of colesterol, anger and aggresive behaviour . The green colour creates calmness and help eyes recover from the tense.
Since 2003 the effort to rehabilitate critical land areas in Indonesia only covered about 600.000 hectares, while at present the critical land areas reached approx. 59.2 hectares, (Kompas, July 14, 2007).
Besides the disaster problems, Indonesia is facing the lessening of petroleum reserves which has been an important export item, and the increasing need of fuel which recently has made Indonesia one of the world’s net importer. The national fuel consumption is very dominant(68%), the highly dependency to the imported fuel creates a heavy burden on the Government’s budget because cost of subsidy is to sustain an affordable selling price to the people, but it also create a psychological problem of restriction once the subsidy is withdrawn.
To overcome the problems we should seek sustainable natural sources to replace the fossil fuel which soon will finish. In the tropical climate country we have some number of oil producing plants which can be used as bio fuel. Keeping in mind the two problems we have to pick a choice which can solve all problems which is overcoming the critical land area along with replanting trees, as well as producing the sustainable energy. The selected plant will be a meeting point between critical land area rehabilitation need and fullfilling the supply of bio fuel. So far the choise is partially between palm or jatropha curcas to produce sustainable energy, but they are not really applicable for the reforesting. The same applies to planting teak, mahony or acasia trees which then invites the possibility of stealing the trees again for fuel or for sale.
The solution is by planting the tree which can serve as conservation plant as well as producing an alternative sustainable energy.
Kemiri Sunan RESPOND TO GLOBAL WARMING
The solution is planting KEMIRI SUNAN .
Kemiri Sunan is an indegenous tree of the Phillipines, but presently many grows naturally in West Java (Duke, 1983). Recently it is being cultivated in the area of Sumedang by our community.
The optimum climate to grow is at temperature 18,7–26,2oC, pH 5,4–7,1.
Grows at low to medium level , in West Java is found growing at an elevation of more than 1000 mtr (Hyne, 1987)
Grows as a pole, height can reach 15 meter or more, live untill more than 75 years and have a tight and wide canopy.
The tight and wide canopy enable the tree to held rain drops falling directly to the soil surface, so that prevent errosion and increasing absorbtion of water into the soil.
Singgle Rooted anchorage enables to prevent land slide .
Has tick leaves (reaches thousands leaves/tree), able to tie carbondioxide and produces plenty of oxigen.
If the overall critical land rehabilitation in Indonesia (59.2 mio HA), forest and the unproductive areas are planted with Kemiri Sunan, the planted number will be more than 10 billion which provides trilions of leaves.
If this happens, Indonesia will be the biggest oxigen supplier in the world!
Kemiri Sunan AS THE ENERGY CRISIS SOLUTION
Planting Kemiri Sunan will creates a tremendous multiplyer effects. Besides being the precise solution to the critical land area rehabilitation, it also produces the alternative sustainable fuel. Matching the government’s policy in reducing fuel price subsidy, there will be more opportunities for the development of technology to produce the alternative fuel to replace the fossil fuel. This supports the National Energy Policy through diversification and conservation of energy. One of the technology is the use of green fuel as biodiesel. The sustainable green fuel can be obtained from Kemiri Sunan’s and Jatropha Curcas’ seeds.
The greatest potency of the Kemiri Sunan lies on the fruit which consists of nut and shell . In the nut stay seed and seed’s skin. The seed is being processed to produce oil and will be used as source of alternative energy to replace solar after further process.
The seed produces approx. 56% (Vassen & Umali, 2001). To obtain the oil the seed has to be pressed first. The result of the pressing is a yellow clear liquid oil and solid waste.
The oil composition consists of palmitic acid 10%, stearic acid 9%, oleic acid 12%, linoleic acid 19% and α-eaeostrearic 51%. The α-elaeostearic acid explains about the poison content in the oil.
Kemiri Sunan oil resulting from pressing is then being processed further to become bio diesel. Besides being used as bio diesel it is also used for various industrial products. Among others are for varnish, paint, soap, linoleum, cloth oil, resin, sintetic rubber, lubricant, abbrasive and a mixture for polisher, food and medicine container protector, covering wire and other metal surface as used in radio, radar, telephone and telegraph equipment (duke, 1978)
The remaining of the extraction in the form of solid waste or cake contains 6% nitrogen, 1.7% potassium and 0.5% phosphor. The cake can be processed further to become biogas. 3 kg cake produces 1.5M³ biogas or equivalent to 1 litre kerosene.
According to Tatang (2007), the average biogas daily household need is 2-3M³/day so that it needs 6-9 kg cake per day or 2-3 tonnes cake per year. To supply the need we have to harvest 6 tonnes dry seeds per year.
Assumed that the productivity per tree at age above 7 years reaches 300 kg dry seeds per year, each household can provide its own biogas need per year only by planting 15 trees Kemiri Sunan, and they do not need to buy more kerosene. So that destroying forest to steal wood will no longer be necessary.
The waste cake after being used to produce biogas can be used for manure. 1 Hectare paddy field needs 15- kg (N content 45%) urea fertilizer. Assumed in 1 kg waste biogas cake contains 6% of N, it will need approx. 7.2 waste biogas cake per hectare. There are 3 planting seasons a year, the total need will be 6-7.2 tons waste biogas cake to replace urea fertilizer. It can be covered from harvest of planting 48 trees. We can imagine the size of area which can use the manure without having to buy urea fertilizer. (input initially for 2 years).
The conclusion is it is no mission impossible that by planting Kemiri Sunan we can develop ENERGY AND FERTILIZER INDEPENDENT VILLAGES.
DEVELOPING PEOPLE’S ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT THROUGH KEMIRI SUNAN
Assumed the productivity per tree at the age above 7 years reaches 300-500 kg dry seeds per year and the price is RP 300-500/kg (fetched), per tree will create an income of Rp 90.000-250.000 per year (depends on the maintenance)
For planting distance of 6x6 meter, in 1 hectares will need 289 trees resulting an income per hectare of Rp 25 mio/year, a very promising earning for the farmer.
If planting is done on critical land areas in Indonesia which covers 59.2 mio HA, there will be a population of 15 billion trees. Based on the above assumptions they will yield some 7.4 billion tonnes dry seeds per year which yield 5.92 billion tonnes oil per year. A fantastic yearly revenue!
At the processing business level, if assumed 1 ltr biodiesel yield from 2.5 kg dry seeds, at the price of solar Rp 4.300/ltr – 7.000/ltr (for industry Oct 2007) , with the price of seeds of Rp 750 – 1.250 and processing costs Rp 1.750 per litre, resulting the profit of Rp 1.300-4.000 per litre (gross), depends on the availability of infra structures of each area of process.
If the total critical land area production is as above, the Government should succeed in overcoming problems of critical land area and providing green fuel, as well as obtaining a fantastic tax revenue!
The above illustration is only based on the critical land area fact, while the truth is there are still many more area of potential land, among others are along the river banks, forest area and non-productive area as along the road, along sides the utility roads which can be planted too.
Besides being harvested for its fruit, the tree also serves as a road’s canopy and greenery.
For example, if 10% of the length of the village road in the Regency being planted with about 10,000 trees along side of road (distance 6 mtrs) and so as around the Dam in Green Belt area covering approx. 300 HA to prevent errosion. If the cultivation is managed by the surrounding residents they will obtain an awesome yearly income.
Assuming that all critical land area, river banks area, forest and non productive land is planted Kemiri Sunan, that will create a triple track of Increasing economic growth, lower unemployment and overcoming poverty.
With a Revenue of Trillions Rupiah yearly - will it enable us to pay off the debt?
Kemiri Sunan SOLVING PROBLEMS WITHOUT PROBLEM
From the environment aspect, Indonesia has a huge land area spreading along the islands. Those can be changed into plantation. The tree has the right characteristic for a rehabilitation plant. The seeds can produce oil which at the end can minimize the forest destroying action to steal wood. The oil yield can be used as sustainable green fuel which environmental friendly . the waste can be used as organic manure as well as natural pesticide.
From the economic aspect, with the increase of fuel price and the high market demands, the business of green fuel is very promising. By developing green fuel the energy supply will be increased and the people’s economic is empowered. The green fuel will be supplied up to the grass root‘s level of economic activity, for instance the fishermen.
From the aspect of technology, the production of the green fuel and the process of waste treatment to produce manure and biogas can be developed nationally.
Of course to realize all of those efforts there are still many obstacles which Hill become major problems, in the level of plantation itself as well as the processing of post harvest. Therefore it is urgently needed the firm legal and commodity trading systems which protect the continuity of the business, a thorough and strong system which is not only partially released issues.
Carrying out plans to plant Kemiri Sunan as one of the selected plant used to rehabilitate critical land areas while at the same urgency making it a source of oil producing plant for a sustainable fuel is not an easy effort. Providing young plants for the rehabilitation as big area as Indonelsia and producing oil to fulfill the need of fuel is a very big project which consume an enermous time and of course , CAPITAL FUNDING.
A huge planting area is a soloution to respond to the problems, but to guarantee a sustainable and continuous supply of young tree and seed for continuous oil production will need a precise, focused and well planned system.
Duke, J.A. 1978. The quest for tolerant germplasm. P 1-4. In : ASA Special Symposium 32, Crop tolerance to suboptimal land conditions. Am. Soc. Agron. Madison, WI.
Hyne, K. 1987. Useful plant in Indonesia.
Kompas. Saturday , 14 Juli 2007 edition.
Vossen, H.A.M dan Umali, B.E (Editors). 2001. Plant Resources of South-East Asia – Vegetable oils and fats. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden.
Tatang H. Soerawijaya . Head of Pusat Penelitian Pendayagunaan Sumber Daya Alam & Peles-tarian Lingkungan ITB dan Ketua Forum Biodiesel Indonesia (FBI)
Harian Pikiran Rakyat, Edisi Kamis, 29 Nopember 2007.
CONSULTING TEAM :
DR. KH. Abdul Ghafur , Head of Commucation Forum Komunikasi and Information Pondok Pesantren based on Agribiz & Head of Pondok Pesantren Sunan Drajat Lamongan.
DEVELOPMENT AND RESEARCH TEAM:
Hendra Natakarmana , Initiate and Developer of research and mass plantation on Kimiri Sunan . Head of Agribiz Development of Ponpes Sunan Drajat .
Titie Prapti Oetami , Secretary
Ir Giharta Winata , Head of Working Comm Alternative fuel of West Java Chambers of Commerce and Director of PT Era Putra Tiga Developer of jatropha curcas plantation in Sumedang.
DR. Ir. Tatang H. Soerawijaya , Head of R & D of Natural Resources and Sustainable Environment of Institute Technology Bandung and Head of Indonesian Biodiesel Forum.
DR Harry Wiriadinata , Expert Staff Researcher LIPI Cibinong.
Andrias Wiji Setyo Pamuji , ST . Developer and expert in Biogas .
Ibrahim , ST . Assistant Biodiesel Research Club ITB
Ir. Teguh Narwanto, M.M . Plant Reservation and Conservation.
Drs. Gunawan . Plant Reservation and Conservation.
Tri Wahyuningsih SSi , Assistant R&D cultivation
Ardi Penataran SSi , Assistant R&D Cultivation